Discovery of the oldest glass furnaces Israel near Mount Carmel

 

glassmaking furnaces dating back to the late Roman era were discovered at the foot of Mount Carmel, between junctions Ha-Amakim and Yagur, announced Monday the Israeli Antiquities Authority (IAA). This archaeological discovery is further evidence of the place occupied by the Israeli glass industry on the international stage.

Israel, a major glass production center

Furnaces glass splinters, discovered during excavations carried out in the framework of a railway project underway in the Jezreel Valley, prove that Israel was indeed a leading glass production centers of the ancient world .

 

"This is a very important discovery with implications for the history of the glass industry both in Israel and in the entire ancient world," says Yael Gorin-Rosen, chief curator of the department glassware in the AIA. He added: "We know from historical sources dating back to the Roman era that the Acre Valley was famous for the excellent quality of its sand, particularly suitable for the manufacture of glass. Chemical analyzes of glass utensils from this period discovered in European sites and wrecks of sunken ships in the Mediterranean region have proved that the glass is rooted in our region. Now, furnaces have been discovered, for the first time, where the raw material used to manufacture the glassware was produced. "

 

The extraordinary results of these almost accidental excavations have attracted glass experts worldwide. "This sensational discovery is of great interest for the understanding of all the glass trade system in antiquity. Here we have evidence that Israel was a production center of international importance; his drink was widely distributed in Europe and all the Mediterranean countries, "says Professor Ian Freestone of the University College London, an expert in the identification of the chemical composition of the glass.

The site was located by Abdel Salam Al-Sa'id, an inspector of AIA who oversaw the construction of the new railway line linking Haifa to the east. The archaeologist, whose task is to ensure that the work does not affect sites that may have historical significance, discovered pieces of raw glass, antique stalls and a layer of ash in a trench. "We also found pieces of glazed bricks from the walls and ceiling of the oven," says the director of excavations.

Industrial production for a growing market

 

Furnaces included two compartments: a combustion chamber where burning kindling to obtain a very high temperature, and a melting chamber in which the raw materials (the pure sand and salt) were inserted and then fused to a temperature of about 1200 Co. The glass was then heated for one to two weeks, until huge pieces of raw glass are formed. Some weighed over 10 tons. At the end of the production process, the ovens were cooled and the glass pieces were broken into smaller pieces and sold to workshops where they were re-melted to produce glassware.

The use of glass has largely developed in early Roman times, because of its characteristics very popular: its transparency, beauty, delicacy and manufactured utensils and speed production blow. Become a necessity in every home of the Roman Empire, glass was produced in industrial quantities in specialized centers. The site discovered in the Zvoulon Valley is an excellent example of such glass manufacturing centers.

Remember also that the edict of Maximum, issued 301 of the vulgar era by the Roman emperor Diocletian, mentions two types of glass: the first known under the name Judea glass (that is to say, the Land of Israel) and the second glass of Alexandria (Egypt). The glass Judea was light green and cheaper than Egyptian glass. This discovery now allows to locate one of the centers where this had occurred prized commodity in the Roman Empire.

The ovens will be transferred to the regional school "Carmel Zvoulon" and exposed to the public in a few months.

 

New web site for Bavelloni

Bavelloni SpA announces the launch of their new web site. Bavelloni.com, the new Bavelloni SpA web site is now online. Easy-to-navigate, accessible on PC, tablet and smartphone, the site intends to mirror the Company, where tradition and experience evolve in a dynamic and modern context. By this new web platform, now available in Italian and English, Bavelloni SpA will be closer to their customers: this project represents a milestone for relaunching the brand globally. Design and innovation have always been Bavelloni’s goals and the site is perfectly in line with that. The products are in the foreground: strong impact images and contents showing Bavelloni technological solutions in a clear and immediate way. The site also includes a session focused on the Company’s long history, an overview of after-sales services and some galleries with case histories, events and the wide Bavelloni SpA sales partners’ network all over the world in a glance.

 

www.bavelloni.com

Mr Mercier At Bottero France

He joined the Bottero Group to handle the marketing of the range machinery for flat glass on the western half of France. Mr. Mercier is well known in France on the market of mirrors where he held several technical manager.

New job for Mr Piscina in France

 

The former leader of the mirrors Technidécors left Bottero he joined there more than a year as a sales engineer to join the mirrors Parmentier.  Then left Parmentier some week ago to join Intermac.

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Histoire de la pierre, marbres et granits :

 

Les origines

 

A l’origine étaient appelées marbres toutes les pierres que l’on pouvait polir sans aucune référence à leur composition. On a donc appelé marbres, des roches qui étaient en fait des granits, des basaltes, des calcaires… qui sont considérés comme des marbres anciens par opposition aux marbres modernes qui dérivent tous du calcaire.

Le mot marbre est dérivé du terme Grec Marmaros qui signifie "pierre brillante"

Le terme granit apparait lui beaucoup plus tard au  17 ème siècle et dérive du terme Italien "granito" qui signifie grain. D’ailleurs en Anglais on parle de "granite".

Les marbres se sont formés au fond des océans par dépôt de calcaires pendant une période située entre -380 et -330 millions d’années.

Les matières en suspension dans l'eau se sont peu à peu déposées en lits les unes au-dessus des autres et ont constitué des formations géologiques appelées bancs.

L'action de différents éléments naturels (mouvements des couches, pression, action du soleil, de l'oxygène..) ont changés peu à peu les caractéristiques originelles et la couleur donnant à la pierre son aspect définitif.

Les mouvements des couches plus profondes vont soulever et faire se déplacer ces couches de marbres que l’on retrouvera le plus souvent dans des collines en faible altitude au pied des principaux massifs montagneux.

L’action de la lumière et de la chaleur va faire cristalliser ces roches et lui donner son aspect actuel.

Ces marbres, que l’on appelle marbres primaires ne contiennent jamais de fossiles car ils se sont formés à une époque où la vie n’existait pas encore sur la terre.