There are no translations available.

Sols et Paysages

Très bel ouvrage, écrit par deux passionnés, détaillant les relations entre paysages et types de sols sur une douzaine d’exemples différents.

Ce livre écrit par deux universitaires est très agréable à lire et explique en détails les principaux types de sols que l’on trouve en Europe et leur incidence sur la végétation et l’utilisation des terrains correspondants.

Cet ouvrage décrit de façon détaillée un grand nombre de sols en croisant les observations sur le terrain, les analyses en laboratoire et en s’appuyant sur la bibliographie et l’expérience des deux auteurs. A partie de ces données sont expliquées la formation du sol et ses incidences sur la végétation et l’exploitation des terrains correspondants.

L’incidence de l’habitat, de l’agriculture, de l’exploitation du sous-sol sont prises en compte ainsi que leurs incidences sur le sol.

Une autre partie traite plus en profondeur les usages du sol qu’ils soient urbains, forestiers, agricoles, viticoles ou autres.

Ce livre est abondamment illustré de photos et croquis.

Il s’adresse à tout professionnel ou futur professionnel dans ce domaine ou dans des domaines proches (agriculture, exploitations forestières ou minières…) mais aussi à toute personne convaincue de l’importance du sol et de l’impératif de le protéger.

 

Sols et Paysages

Types de sols, fonctions et usages en Europe moyenne

Par Jean Michel Cobat et Claire Guenat

Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes

Lausanne

There are no translations available.

Vente miroiterie Sforza

 

La miroiterie Sforza, installée depuis plusieurs dizaines d'années dans la région grenobloise a été cédée courant juillet à un jeune repreneur.

Main French windows supplier before the merging Bouvet FPPE .

1/Tryba (Atrya)

CA 2017 265 millions d’Euros

 

2/Cetih (Bel M, Swao,  Zilten, CID)

CA 2017 215 millions d’Euros

 

3/Bouvet

CA 2017 162 millions d’Euros

 

4/FPPE

CA 2017 145 millions d’Euros

 

5/Atlantem (Solabaie)

CA 2017 133 millions d’Euros

Very strong growth in Internet sales of wheels for mirrors machines.

Vedip, the first European web site (French origin) Internet sales of Italian wheels for mirrors machines saw its revenues for the second 2019 quarter  increased by more than 67 %.

The strategy developed by Vedip to propose, in partnership with a leading Italian manufacturers of wheels and diamond core drills for glass, very competitive prices  for working only on the Internet, detailed fact sheets with photos, standard wheels made by manufacturers / Machines / Positions, alternative wheels and a telephone support seems to meet the needs of the market in Europe mirrors.

The site already has 1741 tools now online  continues  to improve the technical data of the tools and the number of referenced machinery (over a hundred).

On Vedip you can view the data sheets (with photos and price) of the wheels for the main flat glass processing machines of the market (straight line edging machines, CNC, drills, double edger, chamfering ...) and the most important suppliers (Intermac, Bovone, Glaston, Bavelloni, Lattuada, Schiatti, JANBAC Baudin, Battelino, Denver, Bimatech, Ada, Besana, Bottero ....).

www.vedip.com

Contact : info@vedip.com

Tel 00 33 782 39 43 34.

 

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Information

This introduction is for no professional person. It is only a first step to better understand this material.

For professionals or to have deeper information you can have a look on the following web sites.

 

www.verreonline.fr

www.verre.org

www.glassalia.com

www.infovitrail.com

www.saint-gobain-vitrage.com

www.pilkington.com

www.agc-flatglass.eu

www.yourglass.fr

www.idverre.net

Article from Jean-Claude Lehmann ( Saint-Gobain).

 

The glass

Considering the chemical composition it is possible to consider 3 different glasses.

The sodo-calcic glasses

The boro-silicat glasses

-The vitro-céramique glasses

 

The sodo-calcic glasses are mainly used in architectural markets.

The boro-silicate glasses, due to the low distention coefficient, are present on markets where are important temperature differences and with contact with fire

A very well-known trademark on this field is Pyrex.

The vitro-céramique glasses, with also a low distention coefficient are present in household appliance (oven doors, cooking plates, chimneys…)

 

This important difference in the chemical composition has results in their properties and using areas. Silica represents between 50% and 90% of the total composition.

Moreover :

-The sodo-calcic glasses have additions of calcium and sodium oxides.

-The boro-silicate glasses have boron oxide.

-The vitro-céramique glasses have aluminium oxide.

There are other oxides (Baryum, Lithium, Magnesium, Potassium, Zinc, Titan….) each giving a specific property, (color, melting point, chemical resistance, mechanical properties..).

A very interesting thing is that the glass compositions have not very different between to-day and 1600 years ago.

The flat glass is mainly used :

-70% in architectural

-20% in automotive

The car we have dreamed when we was a child

 

Is not exactly the same we drive to-day.

 

-10% in décoration and appliance

 

In architectural and automotive is required the more perfect transparency for the light and the weakest transparency for infrared light, because the solar energy is carried by infrareds (to minimize the increasing of temperature inside the building or the car). Infrareds carry also, during winter, the heat to outside and increase the energy used for heating.

Adjusting the glass chemical composition the more important flat glass suppliers Saint-Gobain, PPG, Pilkington, AGC …) succeed to manufacture such glasses.

Glass is transparent, but you can see that, in fact, it has a green colour (due to iron presence) more obvious for high glass thickness (more than 12 mm).

This green colour can be removed with manganese or selenium addition.

The glass can be also coloured.

Cobalt gives a blue colour

Selenium in large quantities gives a red colour

Copper oxide gives a turquoise colour.

With Nickel depending the concentration you can obtain a large colour range from blue to black

With tin you have shadowed white

With iron you can have, black, brown or green

With Titanium black yellow

With gold several different yellow

With uranium addition from yellow to fluorescent green

With Silver nitrate from orange to yellow

 

 

Colored glass from Egypte, around 600 years before JC

 

The colors grades are also depending from glass heating and cooling (like in pottery).

 

You can colour all the glass surface. Generally this operation is done with rolls (see the area for colored glass in the section machines comparisons) engraved or not, or with pistols.

You can also put a colored image on the glass (with screen printing or digital printing). For more information go to the corresponding area in machines comparisons.

 

Screen printing from Andy Warhol

 

 

 

 

Other more industrial exemple.

 

 

After this operation the glasses go inside a furnace to fix the color on or inside the glass depending the final using (advertising, architectural…).

 

 

Industrial glass manufacturing.

The different products are sent in a melting oven. The industrial process is called "float"

This process was design by a person called Pilkington. This invention allowed to decrease drastically the manufacturing cost and opened huge market for flat glass.

At the oven outlet the glass flows on a tin bath.

 

Float glass drawing

Float drawing

 

The glass goes inside rolls allowing to produce glass in the thickness required (3, 4 ,5 ,6 , 8 ,10  ,12 ,15 ,19 mm), is cut and sent to the processing companies.