There are no translations available.

Sols et Paysages

Très bel ouvrage, écrit par deux passionnés, détaillant les relations entre paysages et types de sols sur une douzaine d’exemples différents.

Ce livre écrit par deux universitaires est très agréable à lire et explique en détails les principaux types de sols que l’on trouve en Europe et leur incidence sur la végétation et l’utilisation des terrains correspondants.

Cet ouvrage décrit de façon détaillée un grand nombre de sols en croisant les observations sur le terrain, les analyses en laboratoire et en s’appuyant sur la bibliographie et l’expérience des deux auteurs. A partie de ces données sont expliquées la formation du sol et ses incidences sur la végétation et l’exploitation des terrains correspondants.

L’incidence de l’habitat, de l’agriculture, de l’exploitation du sous-sol sont prises en compte ainsi que leurs incidences sur le sol.

Une autre partie traite plus en profondeur les usages du sol qu’ils soient urbains, forestiers, agricoles, viticoles ou autres.

Ce livre est abondamment illustré de photos et croquis.

Il s’adresse à tout professionnel ou futur professionnel dans ce domaine ou dans des domaines proches (agriculture, exploitations forestières ou minières…) mais aussi à toute personne convaincue de l’importance du sol et de l’impératif de le protéger.

 

Sols et Paysages

Types de sols, fonctions et usages en Europe moyenne

Par Jean Michel Cobat et Claire Guenat

Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes

Lausanne

There are no translations available.

Vente miroiterie Sforza

 

La miroiterie Sforza, installée depuis plusieurs dizaines d'années dans la région grenobloise a été cédée courant juillet à un jeune repreneur.

Main French windows supplier before the merging Bouvet FPPE .

1/Tryba (Atrya)

CA 2017 265 millions d’Euros

 

2/Cetih (Bel M, Swao,  Zilten, CID)

CA 2017 215 millions d’Euros

 

3/Bouvet

CA 2017 162 millions d’Euros

 

4/FPPE

CA 2017 145 millions d’Euros

 

5/Atlantem (Solabaie)

CA 2017 133 millions d’Euros

Very strong growth in Internet sales of wheels for mirrors machines.

Vedip, the first European web site (French origin) Internet sales of Italian wheels for mirrors machines saw its revenues for the second 2019 quarter  increased by more than 67 %.

The strategy developed by Vedip to propose, in partnership with a leading Italian manufacturers of wheels and diamond core drills for glass, very competitive prices  for working only on the Internet, detailed fact sheets with photos, standard wheels made by manufacturers / Machines / Positions, alternative wheels and a telephone support seems to meet the needs of the market in Europe mirrors.

The site already has 1741 tools now online  continues  to improve the technical data of the tools and the number of referenced machinery (over a hundred).

On Vedip you can view the data sheets (with photos and price) of the wheels for the main flat glass processing machines of the market (straight line edging machines, CNC, drills, double edger, chamfering ...) and the most important suppliers (Intermac, Bovone, Glaston, Bavelloni, Lattuada, Schiatti, JANBAC Baudin, Battelino, Denver, Bimatech, Ada, Besana, Bottero ....).

www.vedip.com

Contact : info@vedip.com

Tel 00 33 782 39 43 34.

 

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Vertical tempering furances

 

1/Introduction

There are to main reasons for glass tempering

To harden the glass surface

To prevent, in case of glass breaks, to have very dangerous big pieces of broken glasses

 

A/Different glass tempering

There are 2 different glass tempering but only one (the thermic one) reaches the 2 targets

Chemical tempering

Thermic tempering

 

1/The chemical tempering

The glass is dived inside heated salts bath. The bath chemical composition depends of the type of glass. The target is to introduce at the glass surface more important dimensions cations from the salts bath, to replace the smaller ones which are inside the glass. This is possible thank to the temperature increase ( more than 400 degrees Celsius) which allows the cations to move.

During the cooling the cations movement stops and the biggest are kept in a smaller space than the one they normally need. So they are going to take more space and to harden the glass surface.

Moreover the surface is going to be in compression and increase the glass resistance to break.

But if the glass breaks the big dangerous glass pieces remain.

The chemical tempering is used for glass less than 5 mm thickness.

 

2/The thermic tempering

The idea is the same, to put the glass surface in compression. But a thermic way is going to be used.

The glass is heated (more than 600 Celsius degrees) in an oven for a time depending the glass thickness (between 1 and 15 minutes). And quickly cooled down (with air under pressure).

The surface quickly cooled is going to be in compression and the internal part of the glass is going to be in extension

This way to temper has some advantages

The glass broke in small pieces (less than 1 cm²), so less dangerous for people;

It is less expensive

It is possible to temper all kind of thicknesses

 

B/The machines for thermic tempering

The tempering vertical ovens

The tempering oscillating horizontal ovens

The tempering continuous horizontal ovens

 

2/Vertical tempering

The glass is hold by crowbars and introduce inside the vertical furnace. When the required temperature is reached the glass is quickly moved to the tempering area where the cooling is done with under pressure air.

It is the cheaper way to temper glass especially glass with large dimensions. The problem comes from the crowbars with marks on the glass.

In industrial countries there are less and less vertical tempering furnaces